The Tuskegee Experiment – In 1932 the U.S. Public Health service began conducting a study on the effects of syphilis that was conducted through the Tuskegee Institute in Tuskegee, Alabama. The study involved 399 poor black sharecroppers who unknowingly had syphilis, and 201 black men who did not. The men were not told that they had syphilis, only that they had “bad blood,” a term used to describe any number of health problems in rural Alabama. As compensation, the men were given free meals, free medical exams and burial insurance, but they were never told that they had the disease, nor were they given any form of treatment, even after the discovery that penicillin could cure the disease in 1947. The Tuskegee Experiment lasted until 1972. Only 74 of the original test subjects were alive in 1972. During the course of the experiment, 28 of the men died as a direct result of the syphilis, another 100 died of complications related to the disease, and 40 wives of the test subjects contracted the disease. And if that’s not bad enough, 19 children where born with congenital syphilis. In 1997, President Bill Clinton offered a formal apology on behalf of the last eight survivors of the Tuskegee Experiment, publicly saying, “To our African American citizens, I am sorry that your federal government orchestrated a study so clearly racist.”
Lorenzo Tucker—Often billed as the “Black Valentino,” actor Lorenzo Tucker became a major star in the race films of the 1920s, 30s and 40s. He worked most frequently with prolific director Oscar Micheaux, who used Tucker in eighteen of the thirty-six films he made. Micheaux is often credited with coming up with the Black Valentino moniker, which Tucker found amusing, as he felt his complexion was actually lighter than that of legendary silent film star Rudolph Valentino. In addition to his work on the screen, Tucker was a respected stage actor, and appeared in the Broadway production of The Constant Sinner, where he played a pimp opposite white actress Mae West. The play included a scene where Tucker and West kiss, which caused much controversy. In some cities the scene had to be cut, while some theaters would not even allow Tucker to share the stage with West. Tucker retired from acting in the 1950s, and would go on to become an autopsy technician at the medical examiner’s office in New York City, where he worked on the bodies of Nina Mae McKinney (who he co-starred with in Straight to Heaven) and Malcolm X.
LaWanda Page – Born Alberta Pearl and best known as Aunt Esther on television’s Sanford and Son, LaWanda Page was a professional comedian and performer known by many for her foul-mouthed stage routine. Growing up in St. Louis, she was childhood friends with Redd Foxx, who’s show Sanford and Son would make her a television star. Foxx had insisted that Page co-star on the show as his Bible-thumping sister-in-law, despite producers who didn’t want to use her. But before TV, Page honed her comedic talent on the comedy/burlesque circuit. Known as the “Bronze Goddess of Fire,” she was known for her fire-eating act and a trick that involved lighting a cigarette with her fingertips. She recorded several comedy albums during the 1960s and 70s, including Mutha Is Half a Word. Page continued to perform live throughout the 1990, and appeared in several films, including Friday and Shakes the Clown, which included a line she often used in her stand-up routine: “I got one of them peanut butter pussys: it’s brown, smooth and easy to spread.”
Samuel J. Battle – Born in North Carolina in 1883, Samuel “Big Sam” Battle joined the New York City Police Department in 1911, making him the first black police officer in the city of New York. Battle became the first black police sergeant in 1926 and the first lieutenant in 1935. He played a pivotal role in ending the Harlem Riots of 1935, which started when rumors began to circulate that teenage shoplifter Lino Rivera had been beaten to death in the basement of Kress Five and Ten store. This rumor led to three days of rioting, three dead, and hundreds injured. Battle helped bring the violence to an end when he had his picture taken with Rivera, and then circulated copies of the photo throughout Harlem. Battle would go on to become the first black parole commissioner in 1941. He passed away in 1966, and in 2009 the intersection of Lenox Avenue and West 135th Street in Harlem was named after him.
Marshall “Major” Taylor—The son of a Civil War veteran, and one of eight children, Marshall Taylor and his family moved from Kentucky to Indiana, where his father went to work for a wealthy white family. Taylor became friends with Dan Southard, the son of his father’s employer. The Southards afforded Marshall a good life and helped him with his education. When he was 12 they gave him his first bicycle, and he soon became an adept trick rider. Taylor was hired to perform tricks on a bike while dressed as a soldier, earning him the nickname “Major.” By the time he was 13, Major Taylor had won his first bike race. Despite being banned from some race tracks and threatened at others, Taylor excelled in competitive bike racing, and turned professional in 1896 when he was 18 years old, leading to a career that would last seventeen years. Among Taylor’s biggest supporters was President Teddy Roosevelt. Taylor set several world records during his career, and would become the first African-American athlete to achieve the status or world champion (although African-Canadian boxer George Dixon was the first black athlete to ever be a world champion). Taylor earned a considerable salary as a professional racer, but he lost his money in bad investments and during the stock market crash. He died penniless and was buried in an unmarked grave.
DR. DANIEL HALE WILLIAMS – The son of a “free negro” and a white mother, Daniel Hale Williams was born in Pennsylvania in 1858, three years before the Civil War. Williams would grow up to become a doctor—the first black cardiologist. In 1893, Williams became the first doctor to successfully perform open-heart surgery. Other attempts had been made as far back as the early 1800s, but Williams was the first surgeon to not have his patient die after the procedure. Williams is also known for founding Provident Hospital in Chicago, the first non-segregated hospital in the United States. Provident also became a major training school for African-American nurses. Williams’s long list of achievements also includes co-founding the National Medical Association, an organization that represents African-American doctors.
ALTHEA GIBSON– Long before the Williams sisters took the world of tennis by storm, there was Althea Gibson, the South Carolina-born woman who broke the color barrier of competitive tennis. Gibson’s family moved to Harlem in the 1930s, and it was there that she became involved in tennis. She had a successful career in the world of amateur tennis, and at the age of 31 she turned pro. Among the many highlights and historical landmarks of her career are her wins at Wimbledon (1957) and the U.S. Open (1958), making her the first black tennis player to win both tournaments. During those years, Gibson was the Top Ranked U.S. Women’s tennis player. After retiring from tennis in 1959, Gibson penned her autobiography, recorded an album, and even dabbled in acting. She would return to sports in 1964, this time in golf, as the first black woman in the LPGA. In 1971 she was inducted into the Tennis Hall of Fame. “In sports, you simply aren’t considered a real champion until you have defended your title successfully. Winning it once can be a fluke; winning it twice proves you are the best.” – Althea Gibson
Black Basketball Players—It seems impossible to believe that there was ever a time when basketball was a segregated sport, but up until the 1950-51 season, the NBA was a white-only league. Before the NBA desegregated, the only integrated basketball league was the National Basketball League (NBL), which had been around since 1937 and became integrated during the 1942-43 season (five years before Jackie Robinson would go on to break the color barrier in baseball). The all-black New York Rens were brought into the NBL during the 1948-49 season, and moved to Dayton to replace a league franchise that had folded. Before joining the NBL, the Rens (also know as the New York Renaissance) had been one of several all-black professional teams that included the Harlem Globetrotters. The 48-49 season would be the last of the NBL. The next year, the NBA, which had been formed in 1946, became integrated. Earl “The Big Cat” Lloyd (Washington Capitals), Nat “Sweetwater” Clifton (New York Knicks), Chuck Cooper (Boston Celtics) and Hank DeZonie (Tri-Cities Blackhawks) were the first black players in the NBA. Of these four, three had individual distinctions within the NBA. Cooper became the first black player drafted to the NBA, Clifton was the first to sign a NBA contract, and Lloyd was the first black player to actually play in the NBA.
OTIS BLACKWELL – It’s easy to not fully comprehend the importance of black musicians in the history of rock-n-roll, because so many contributions by black musicians have never been properly acknowledged. For every blues musician like Robert Johnson or early rockers like Little Richard of Chuck Berry that are remembered, there are dozens of names that have gone forgotten. Songwriter and singer Otis Blackwell helped define rock-n-roll, writing some of the best known rock songs of the 1950s. Blackwell also wrote under the name John Davenport, and his impressive lists of hits includes “All Shook Up,” “Great Balls of Fire,” “Fever,” “Don’t Be Cruel,” “Return to Sender,” “Handy Man,” and “Daddy Rolling Stone.”
JAMES BENJAMIN “BIG BEN” PARKER – On September 6, 1901, President William McKinnley was attending the Pan-American Exposition in Buffalo, New York. At shortly after 4pm, Leon Czgolosz, a self-proclaimed anarchist from Michigan, fired two shots at President McKinley. Standing in line behind Czgolosz was James Benjamin “Big Ben” Parker, a black man who stood six feet six inches tall and tipped the scales at 250 pounds. Acting quickly, Big Ben Parker tackled Czgolosz, broke the assassin’s nose, and managed to capture the man who murdered President McKinley, who died on September 14 of gangrene resulting from the gunshot wounds. For a brief time—after being accused of being involved with Czgolosz—Big Ben Parker became a national hero. He was quoted as having said, “I am a Negro, and am glad that the Ethiopian race has what ever credit comes with what I did. If I did anything, the colored people should get the credit.”